Industrial psychology and the study of black workers in South Africa: A review and critique. Our work includes direct service work, research, media, media production, organization, education and consultation… (Eagle & Hayes, 1989, p. 1). ), Social services in a changing South Africa. Although this restructuring has been much delayed, inter alia by the unwillingness of universities to accredit course work based rather than traditional thesis based PhDs, there has been no effective opposition to the principle of requiring longer and more advanced study to become a registered psychologist. Eagle, G., Hayes, G. & Bhana, A. Always favouring applied over basic research, intelligence testing became the trump card in pre-Second World War psychology’s bid to contribute rationally and scientifically to South Africa’s social problems - which were, at the time, dominated by issues of "mental hygiene", "race relations" and the so-called "poor white problem", framed by the challenges of an industrialising economy split along class and race lines (Lipton, 1985; Terreblanche, 2003). Best represented by Social Identity Theory (SIT) and Social Representations Theory, this European tradition indeed expanded the scope of social psychology to include at least some consideration of structural dimensions such as class and racial inequalities when dealing with matters of intergroup relations and identity. (Eds.). Pretoria: Unisa. While this dominance could be attributed to the fact that black psychologists were, due to practices of racial exclusion and limited training opportunities, inevitably a minority in critical psychology as well, some black psychologists nevertheless argued that simple racial integration would not solve the problem of racism in psychology and society. Teaching critical thinking is not something that teachers are explicitly trained to do – in fact very few people are. London: Oxford University Press. ), N. Duncan & S. Lasarus (Cons. London: Macmillan. The second international event, the International Critical Psychology Conference, will be hosted, also in 2005, by the psychology department at the University of Kwa-Zulu-Natal in Durban. Together with rehabilitating neglected topics like collective movements and crowds, this left the social atomism and "conservative" political liberalism of the "prejudice-and-stereotype-reduction" approaches to racism characteristic of the American model far behind. But as teaching Mathematics, Science or English is not just about knowing the subject matter but knowing how to teach that subject matter (called pedagogical content knowledge), so too the teaching of critical thinking is about more than just knowing some useful thinking tools. In short, SIT added to an existing body of research on racism a theoretical perspective that illuminated some of the structural dimensions of racial and class inequality, the ideological patterns that gave legitimacy to this status quo, as well as the psychological inhibitors and facilitators of social, rather than just individual, change. Swartz, L. (1986). Finally, it should be mentioned that interwoven with other forms of critical psychological enquiry in post-apartheid South Africa, there has been a strong strand of broadly feminist theory and practice. Paper presented at the 10th Biannual Conference of the International Society for Theoretical Psychology, Istanbul. The first is that the country’s teacher workforce is not well monitored and there are significant shortages in many regions. In J. Henriques, W. Hollway, C. Venn, V. Walkerdine & C. Urwin (Eds. Thus, although there are aspects of the history of South African psychology that would be disowned by the discipline internationally (did we mention that Hendrik Verwoerd was himself a psychologist, whose 1924 doctoral thesis was about "The blunting of the emotions"? Detention and torture in South Africa. N/A, Oxfordshire, Oceans Justice: Lessons from Trade-offs in the Implementation of UN Sustainable Development Goal 14 in the Seychelles. (1997). The flowering of critical psychology in academia has manifested in a variety of forms, including critical conferences, books, articles and university courses. How we learned to stop worrying and love the HSRC. Duncan, N., Van Niekerk, A., De la Rey, C. & Seedat, M. (1990). Nor does the curriculum generally demand it. Nicholas, L.J.& Cooper, S. University of Queensland provides funding as a member of The Conversation AU. Without knowing what to do with them, without an insight into their purpose and function, goals falls short of being realised. From the outset South African critical psychologists working in a discourse analytic frame were concerned, perhaps even more so than their European counterparts, with issues such as materiality, real practices, and the political impact (or lack thereof) of their work (e.g., Hook, 2001; Painter & Theron, 2001). In a similar vein, Terre Blanche and Seedat (2001) trace how, over a forty year period, the politics of class, race and gender entered into industrial psychology research at the National Institute for Personnel Research (NIPR) - not overtly in the form of racial bias (most NIPR researchers in fact claimed to be opposed to apartheid), but in attempts at professional and disciplinary neutrality. (1937). Murray, 2002) - therefore runs the risk of indulging in superficial exoticism at the expense of confronting the real issues facing the discipline and profession internationally. Culture, power and difference: Discourse analysis in South Africa. While a proper historical treatment of black psychology in South Africa still awaits, there are some positive signs that a more serious confrontation with this body of work is emerging in contemporary South African psychology - for example, the thorough discussions of Biko and especially Fanon in recent South African psychology textbooks (Hook, 2004; Nicholas, 2003; Ratele & Duncan, 2003), as well as the increasing interest in and utilisation of various forms of post-colonial theory. These have left a mixed legacy. Among these emerging institutional spaces counted: psychology departments, such as those at Rhodes University and the University of Cape Town, that started offering courses and modules in critical psychology; progressive lecturers in these and other departments who incorporated critical theory into their teaching or training in various areas of academic and applied psychology; the formation of anti-apartheid groupings like the Organisation for Appropriate Social Services in South Africa (OASSSA), Psychologists Against Apartheid and the South African Health and Social Services Organisation (SAHSSO); the establishment of the alternative academic journal PINS; and a number of critically orientated conferences, such as those hosted by OASSSA annually in the late 1980s. In the words of Hamber et al (2000), then, "South African community psychologists, despite some noble efforts to engage with ‘relevant’ social issues, have historically fallen prey to (…) individualizing, idealist, and relativizing tendencies" (p. 63). ), Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Qualitative Methods Conference. Specifically by adopting the medical model and by understanding their practice as value-free science, psychologists could ‘legitimately’ ignore issues of race. & Orkin, M. (1986). While liberal and socialist alternatives for South Africa, in psychology and elsewhere, acknowledged racism and the importance of race as a line of cleavage, they failed to explicitly analyse the psychological and social erosion that had been brought about by it. The assumption underlying these developments are neatly summarised in Murray’s (2002) APA "country report": "South Africa desperately needs psychologists’ help studying and intervening in its problems, according to the country’s psychologists" (p. 50). This helps them individually and also helps the societies in which they will play a role. An overview of critical and reactionary tendencies and traditions in South African psychology may seem somewhat pointless for another reason as well - namely the miniscule size of the discipline locally. South African psychology is now more willing to embrace politics as a legitimate area of enquiry and arena of contestation, but continues to imagine itself as somehow acting on the domain of politics from the outside as a neutral but concerned professional helper - rather than as itself a prime symptom and legitimiser of the modern technocratic state. Rather, the ideological structure of South African psychology promoted certain themes which supplied warrants for ignoring race. driving systemic change that makes learning visible and goes beyond the “tips and tricks” mentality found too often in educational environments; and.

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