diet     The foods and liquids ingested by an animal to provide the nutrition it needs to grow and maintain health. The roach is more streamlined. The snow-capped manakin has white crown feathers (center). habitat     The area or natural environment in which an animal or plant normally lives, such as a desert, coral reef or freshwater lake. Your parents belong to one generation of your family, for example, and your grandparents to another. It’s closer to a slim oval. Vol. Look out for your Lunchtime Genius newsletter in your inbox soon. Members of the two groups of animals have mated, producing hybrid bears. The opal-crowned manakin looks very similar. Free educator resources are available for this article. For those that actually bother to avoid inbreeding, the methods can be a little sad or quite a bit stink. digest     (noun: digestion) To break down food into simple compounds that the body can absorb and use for growth. 17, October 2014, p.1211. urban     Of or related to cities, especially densely populated ones or regions where lots of traffic and industrial activity occurs. autonomous     Acting independently. Experimental evidence for asymmetric mate preference and aggression: behavioral interactions in a woodrat (Neotoma) hybrid zone. One difference between the two subspecies is their migration behavior. Another group of hybrids took the olive-backed thrush’s route south. Many animals that form pairs to mate and raise offspring regularly engage in sexual activities with extra-pair partners. They set up tubes shaped like a T. In each experiment, the scientists placed a female desert woodrat or Bryant’s woodrat at the bottom of the T. Then they put a male desert woodrat and a male Bryant’s woodrat in opposite ends of the top of the T. The males were restrained with harnesses. She placed tiny backpacks on them. But these subspecies overlap along the Coast Mountains in western North America. Fish-eating birds called great cormorants live in the same area as the fish. This includes previous examples, such as swans. The hybrid’s body shape is somewhere in between its parent species’ shapes. For example, the oxygen in the air is made of two oxygen atoms (O2), but water is made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O). People can unwittingly create opportunities for hybridization, too. So what happens when the DNA of two animal groups mix in a hybrid? For instance, researchers have found hybrids of southern flying squirrels and northern flying squirrels. One result: The birds migration might take longer to complete. That means these animals might be better-suited to dine on what a Bryant’s woodrat eats. Inbreeding in dogs can often lead to puppies with medical problems such as birth defects. If true, hybrids may have inherited bacteria that help them digest the plants that Bryant’s woodrats typically consume. Both groups of birds breed in North America, then fly south in winter. It is built on a backbone of phosphorus, oxygen, and carbon atoms. The team used a device that broadcast a radio signal. docile     An adjective meaning calm, cooperative, submissive or deferential. Viewed from the side, the bream appears diamond-shaped with a taller middle than its ends. If a zoo keeps a male lion and a female tiger in the same enclosure, a liger can result. Later, the two species bred with each other. Then they returned via the russet-backed thrush’s path. That would reduce the variety of species. sterile      (in biology) An organism that is physically unable to reproduce. Journal: K.E. For example, mules are the hybrid offspring of horses and donkeys. species     A group of similar organisms capable of producing offspring that can survive and reproduce. Which directions do hybrids get? But the researchers noticed other fish that looked like something in between. Roach and bream must have mated to produce those in-between fish, the scientists thought. Afterward, they spit out unwanted parts — including electronic tags. 13, July 2017, article 20170208. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2017.0208. Vol. The scientists who study them are known as biologists. For example, Black-legged kittiwake chicks are much more likely to die if their parents are closely related to each other, but this doesn’t happen often because females try to select unrelated males. Hybrid songbirds employ intermediate routes in a migratory divide. evolutionary     An adjective that refers to changes that occur within a species over time as it adapts to its environment. From the sensors’ light data, she figured out what time the sun had risen and set at each point along the bird’s journey. Save 52% when you subscribe to BBC Science Focus Magazine. Listen to some of the brightest names in science and technology talk about the ideas and breakthroughs shaping our world. This happens with polar and grizzly bears. The bigger Bryant’s woodrats live in shrubby and forested areas. But hybridization sometimes can boost biodiversity. Sometimes the hybrid is weaker than the parents, or doesn’t even survive. That means they may be able to mate, but they won’t create offspring. But that strategy might also cause problems. But 41 percent of the hybrids’ tags also turned up in the nests. The animals here were mating and producing hybrids, but Matocq didn’t know how common this was. Marjorie Matocq studied this question in rodents called woodrats. (verb) To adopt a specific food-intake plan for the purpose of controlling body weight. Our daily newsletter arrives just in time for lunch, offering up the day's biggest science news, our latest features, amazing Q&As and insightful interviews. Usually, different species don’t mate. The newer type is not necessarily more “advanced,” just better adapted to the conditions in which it developed. The main difference was their body shape. A hybrid species of the two, the golden-crowned manakin, developed a yellow head (right). Over time, this separation may have allowed some of the genes in a population of a species to vary, creating differences in those organisms’ appearance or adaptation to the local environment.


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