Its properties however, are completely different. On August 12, 2000 during a routine naval exercise the K-141 Kursk primed one of its torpedoes to fire a dummy load. Before the sailors could extinguish the fire a second explosion ripped through the front hull of the submarine in the torpedo room producing a fatal hole. Corrections? The chemical formula of hydrogen peroxide is H2O2 which looks similar to water. When pure, this syrupy viscous liquid has a pale... Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. They need a source of oxygen. A simplified submarine, the, By the 1980s hydrogen peroxide was being used throughout Europe and the United States for the sterilization of polyethylene surfaces.…. Black Friday Sale! Hydrogen peroxide is commonly used as an antiseptic and to lighten or bleach hair. Hydrogen peroxide readily decomposes when in contact with a catalyst to produce oxygen gas and water. How hydrogen peroxide sunk a nuclear submarine. The explosion in turn created a fire in the torpedo room. The most important covalent peroxide is hydrogen peroxide, H2O2. Pure hydrogen peroxide freezes at −0.43 °C (+31.3 °F) and boils at 150.2 °C (302 °F); it is denser than water and is soluble in it in all proportions. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Hydrocarbon (fuel) + oxygen ==> Carbon dioxide + water + energy, The Russian Type 65 torpedo uses high test peroxide and kerosene and can reach a maximum speed of 50 knots or 93km/ hr. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/hydrogen-peroxide, The Essential Chemical Industry Online - Hydrogen peroxide, National Center for Biotechnology Information - PubChem - Hydrogen peroxide. Hydrocarbon fuels don't burn underwater. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Understanding hair bleaching and minimizing damage during that process. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Premium Membership is now 50% off! It is stored in brown bottles to protect it from decomposing from light. Omissions? The most important covalent peroxide is hydrogen peroxide, H, …system using oxygen generated by hydrogen peroxide to operate the turbine while submerged. High test peroxide which is used as a propellant can be up 98+% concentration. A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction. Hydrogen peroxide =catalyst=> Oxygen and water. Previously, hydrogen peroxide was industrially prepared by hydrolysis of ammonium peroxydisulfate, which was obtained by electrolysis of a solution of ammonium bisulfate (NH4HSO4) in sulfuric acid . The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is shown by the following chemical reaction. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In industry hydrogen peroxide is commonly available at a 30-35% concentration. Remove Pit Stains. With certain organic compounds, hydrogen peroxide reacts to form hydroperoxides or peroxides, several of which are used to initiate polymerization reactions. The chemical formula of hydrogen peroxide is H 2 O 2 which looks similar to water. Hydrogen peroxide is commonly used as an antiseptic and to lighten or bleach hair. In most of its reactions, hydrogen peroxide oxidizes other substances, although it is itself oxidized by a few compounds, such as potassium permanganate. It begins with the reduction of an anthraquinone (such as 2-ethylanthraquinone or the 2-amyl derivative) to the Corresponding anthrahydroquinone, typically by hydr… Let's face it, brownish-yellow armpit stains are embarrassing. Pure hydrogen peroxide freezes at −0.43 °C (+31.3 °F) and boils at 150.2 °C (302 °F); it is denser than water and is soluble in it in all proportions. 4H2O), used in laundry detergents and chlorine-free bleach products. And aggravating, … Well, how could this chemical sink a nuclear submarine? Hydrogen peroxide is commonly sold in chemists at a concentration of 3 to 5% with water. In most of its reactions, hydrogen peroxide oxidizes other substances, although it is itself oxidized by a few compounds, such as potassium permanganate. This sadly led to the deaths of all 118 officers and crew. This acted like a catalyst producing oxygen and steam inside the torpedo causing a massive  build up in pressure and causing the torpedo to explode. It is thought that during the delay in firing some of the high test peroxide (HTP) propellant leaked and reacted with the copper and brass fittings. Its properties however, are completely different. Updates? The hydrogen peroxide was used to provide a source of oxygen for the fuel in the torpedoes in many Russian submarines. Today, hydrogen peroxide is almost exclusively manufactured by the anthraquinone process, which was formalized in 1936 and patented in 1939.

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