Upon dissolving in water, each dissociates into a metal cation and the hydroxide ion. (C)A compound that donates protons. The Arrhenius acid base theory was introduced in the late 19th century. Soft pretzels are made chewy by the application of sodium hydroxide to the food. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. Donate or volunteer today! An alkaline solution is another name for a solution that is basic. Acids are any compound that will increase their concentration of hydrogen ions within water. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Some non-hydroxide bases may not even be considered in this category, such as CH3NH2, which is methylamine. Which of the following is the Arrhenius definition of a base? A classic example that is used in textbooks to describe this process utilizes hydrochloric acid. This reaction is often called a “neutralization reaction.”. A substance that is an H+ acceptor A substance that produces OH-ions in aqueous solution A substance that is an H+ donor A substance that is an OH-donor A substance that produces H+ ions in aqueous solution Your IP: Bases that consist of an alkali metal cation and the hydroxide anion are all very soluble in water. An Arrhenius acid is a substance that dissociates in water to form hydrogen ions or protons. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. The base dissociates in water to form hydroxide (OH-) ions. An Arrhenius acid is a compound that increases the H + ion concentration in aqueous solution. It is no longer as caustic as it is in its pure state. An Arrhenius base is a substrate that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions in the aqueous solution. HCl. An Arrhenius base increases the concentration of hydroxide ions within an aqueous solution. Bases are any compound that will increase their concentration of hydroxide ions within water. (B)A substance that increases OH- concentration when it is dissolved in water. If olives are soaked in a solution containing sodium hydroxide and other chemicals, the olives will turn black. Similar reactions between an acid and a base can occur in certain solvents and with molecules when in a “vapor,” or gaseous state. To summarize the Arrhenius acid base theory: Although there is a cutoff point between weak and strong acids, but there are always exceptions to the rule as well. This results in a higher concentration of hydroxide ions, which classifies the substance as an Arrhenius base. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. The nature of the base is also reduced, which creates substances that are essentially neutral from a pH standpoint. (D)A compound that accepts protons. In a neutralization reaction between acids and bases, most Arrhenius acid and base combinations will usually react in a way that forms a salt with the water. Privacy A complete neutralization can occur when the pH of the acid is equalized to the pH of the base. Many items that we use every day fit into the categories of acids or bases. One would be a hydrogen ion. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Bases, on the other hand, would yield hydroxide ions. This has created a list of compounds that are referred to as Arrhenius acids and Arrhenius bases. Compounds of the Group 2 metals (the alkaline earth metals) are also basic. (A)A substance that increases H3O+ concentration when it is dissolved in water.


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